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Miscellanica Arborea I. Radical G6 fat burner review ts 2. Betula in the Middle Holocene 2.
Betula in the Late Holocene 3. Abies in the Middle Holocene 4.
Picea in the Middle Holocene 5. Pinus in the Middle Holocene 6. Abies in the Late Holocene 7.
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Picea in the Late Holocene 8. Pinus in the Late Holocene 9.
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Alnus in the Late Holocene Ulmus in the Middle Holocene Ulrnus in the Late Holocene Tilia in the Middle Holocene Tilia in the Late Holocene Carpinus, Contemporary Distribution Carpinus in the First Half of the Middle Holocene Fagus, Contemporary Distribution Fagus in the Late Holocene Quercus robur in the Middle Holocene Proposed Cognates for the Apple Terms 3.
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Geological Periods 2. The Bright Birch 4. The Weaker Names 5. The Stronger Names 6. Some Slavic Cognates 7. Some Germanic Cognates 8.
I have sought to test two hypotheses-one taxonomic and the other methodological. The taxonomic hypothesis is that the PIE speakers differentiated at least eighteen major categories of trees "arboreal units" by the application of between twenty and thirty tree names.
My methodological hypothesis is that the rich scholarship on tree names within Indo-Europeanist philology can be significantly correlated with the results of paleobotanical analysis to yield a more realistic and interesting inference of the PIE arboreal g6 fat burner review. The monograph falls into four chapters. In the first are stated certain essential questions and assumptions of method and conceptualization, particularly as regards the so-called conjunctive approach and the use of the comparative method in semantic reconstruction the subtopics are "over- and underdifferentiation," "denotation and connotation," and the "protomorpheme".
The second chapter contains a brief discussion of the biological concept of succession, and of the inferred succession of trees of central and eastern Europe from the Pre- to the Subboreal; particular attention is given to the cruciaI new palynological evidence from the Atlantic period about to B. In the third chapter, I analyze in some detail the philological evidence on eighteen categories of trees and thirty tree names : birch, conifers, juniper-cedar, aspen-poplar, willow, apple, maple, alder, hazel, nut tree, elm, g6 fat burner review, ash, hornbeam, beech, cherry, yew, and oak.
For each, the results of a primary concern with comparative linguistics have been related to the evidence of botany and paleobotany.
My final chapter summarizes what appear to be the positive results of the historical-comparative test of the two basic hypotheses. The inferred arboreal inventory is stated in detail and discussed in relation to the question of tree names as semantic primitives.
The second set of conclusions in this final chapter is a by-product of my original goal, and consists of broader g6 fat burner review and linguistic points: the uses and functions of the trees in PIE culture and the significance of the preceding analysis for relating the early speech communities to each other and to their natural habitats.
Several patterns have emerged here, including: a high piruvate de arzător de grăsime of shifts in g6 fat burner review between PIE and Greek g6 fat burner review a high number of semantic innovations shared by Greek and Albanian; a high attrition of the posited P I E arboreal terms in six relatively peripheral stocks-Indic, Iranian, Albanian, Armenian, Anatolian, and Tocharian; the cohesion between the three western stocks and between the four stocks which seem to be basic in terms of the arboreal question-Italic, Germanic, Slavic, and Baltic; and the relatively close relation of the Slavic and Germanic stocks to the system posited for PIE.
Aside from their semantic interest, such specific conclusions bear directly on fundamental questions of early Indo-European dialects and migrations, and on the value of lexical semantics as a potential source for dialectal groupings through the comparative method.
The monograph draws on g6 fat burner review kinds of authoritative work.
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The ecological theory was summarized from standard texts such as Woodbury. For the paleobotany I relied primarily on three works: Firbas's Waldgeschichte for the region north of the Alps, and the monographs by Frenzel and Nejshtadt for the prehistory of the USSR. The descriptive botany was garnered from many handbooks and from the entries in three encyclopedias : The Encyclopaedia Britannica, Der grosse Brockhaus, and above all, the Bol'shaja Sovetskaja.
The archaeological information comes mainly from recent syntheses by Marija Gimbutas. For the philological side, certain etymological dictionaries proved excellent, and I usually accepted the author's judgment on the phonological and grammatical relations of his language and stock to the ancestor language-although a t times I had to reinterpret or correct his semantic or botanical statements about trees.
My authorities on the languages and stocks have been: Mayrhofer on Sanskrit, J. Bartholomae was ideal for Old Iranian, and Morgenstierne has recorded valuable information on the contemporary Iranian dialects. Latin, although one of the most crucial sources of evidence, constituted a problem: Walde and Hofmann sometimes include improbabilities without a caveat, whereas Meillet, in Ernout-Meillet, is incomplete, although what he does cite is usually beyond dispute.
I have been hampered by the absence of adequate etymological dictionaries for Tocharian which, granted, has little arboreal datafor Albanian although Meyer and Tagliavini are helpfuland for Armenian although Hiibschmann and Solta are usually satisfactory.
In these and similar instances, I have simply had to use my judgment and the assistance of colleagues. Of the numerous articles, notes, and chapters on tree questions, those by Hoops, Osthoff, Meillet, Thieme, Benveniste, and V. Ivanov were particularly stimulating.
Numerous scholars have contributed in various ways to this research. I am indebted to Harold Gall, Stuart Struever, Homer Thomas, and Floyd Zwinkfor their helpful suggestions,and above all to Karl Butzer and Burkhardt Frenzel for their informed reading of the botanical portions of the manuscript.
Penetrating and copious were the critiques by William Wyatt, Jr. A discussion with Jerzy Kurylowicz was most encouraging at a crucial point in the conceptualization.
Goodenough, Harold Conklin, and Floyd Lounsbury for their ideas on the semantics of paradigms and taxonomies; and to the archaeological anthropologist, Lewis Binford, for his often inspired thoughts on how to relate ecological factors to inferences about prehistory. I am indebted to Robbins Burling for a trenchant critique of an earlier version of chapter 1. Margaret Hardin Friedrich read the entire manuscript twice and contributed invaluably to improving the structure and explicitness of the argument.
I t should go without saying that none of these botanists.
Methods and Concepts Introduction This short study deals with one small portion of the languageand-culture system of the speakers of the PIE dialects, who are assumed to have been scattered in a broad band over the steppe, forests, and foothills between the western Caspian area and the Carpathians and possibly the north German plainduring roughly the fourth millennium and the first centuries of the third millennium B.
The taxonomic hypothesis to be presented and argued consists of three parts. First, that the PIE recognized and named at least eighteen units or categories of trees. Second, that the PIE language, or large groups of PIE dialects, contained at least thirty names of trees; these g6 fat burner review attested in varying ways and degrees g6 fat burner review languages of the descendent stocks, but particularly in Italic, Germanic, Baltic, and Slavic, and to a lesser degree in Celtic and Greek.
The probabilities of at least fortyone species-level entities for the PIE will be demonstrated in the pages following. The nature and interdependencies of these systems can only be discovered and interpreted by conjoining three approaches, or analytical systems. The first approach is linguistic-above all, phonological.